In the above research example, 52100 steel commonly used in ball bearing applications (the AISI equivalent of En31 steel) is subjected to high resolution microscopy to analyze differences between raw metal, metal with heat treatment, and separately, cryogenic processing of metal followed by heat treatment. In these three phases it is possible to analyze the unique metallurgical variations between metal phase changes.
How does cryogenic processing improve hardness?
Hardness is improved in metals subjected to a cryogenic treatment process when retained austenite is eliminated from the molecular structure and compared to a conventionally heat treated metal workpiece.
How does cryogenic processing improve toughness?
Low temperature conditioning of martensite is responsible for increasing the toughness of metal parts when compared to a conventionally heat treated metal workpiece. A deep cryogenically treated component shows far higher toughness than conventionally heat treated material, or the raw metal material.
D. Senthilkumar (2018): Influence of deep cryogenic treatment on hardness and toughness of En31 steel, Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies, DOI:10.1080/2374068X.2018.1530426 – CITED WITH IMAGES FOLLOWING PERMISSION FROM THE AUTHOR.
Dr. D. Senthilkumar, Professor/Mechanical Eng., P.A. College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India
Who We Are
Since our inception, 300 Below has processed millions of pounds of steel and components for thousands of companies around the globe. 300 Below is responsible for establishing over one hundred operations in multiple countries, all using 300 Below’s proprietary cryogenic processing equipment, which we call cryo-processors.
Longer tool life. We cryogenically treat tooling and knives, saws and endmills, reamers or broaches as well as drills and dies for stress relief and stabilization for numerous major tooling and die companies, saving resources and millions of dollars in tooling expenses for industries worldwide. Our gun and rifle business has helped break world records in firearm accuracy, and our cryogenic shotgun barrel process known as Cryo Barrel is credited with numerous 600 round perfect accuracy target scores. Auto racing sees higher horsepower less breakage and significantly longer cryogenic engine, cryogenic transmission and cryogenic brake rotor life. Wow, what a cool process! And the savings keep coming……..
What We Do?
In short, deep cryogenic processing works. Bottom line? We have saved over a million dollars per year in materials and expenses for numerous organizations. We can help you reduce your expenses and save resources. It’s easy — read on.
Firearms and guns, rifles and shotguns, tooling and pumps, fleet brake rotors and knives, racing engines and transmissions … they all respond to deep cryogenic processing and cryogenic tempering. Many materials like centrifugal pumps and hydraulic pumps respond well, too! The benefits range anywhere from 50% to 600% longer life after stress relief and thermal stabilization. Guns such as sniper rifles and tactical rifles shoot with as much as 50% greater accuracy, and 200% longer life.
As our name implies, we improve the properties of metal components by freezing them at minus 300 degrees Fahrenheit. Computer technology allows us to regulate temperatures to 1/10th of a degree. Items such as .243, AR-10 gun barrels, M-110 rifles, AR-15 or M16, .308 and .223 and 12 gauge shotguns used for skeet, trap and sporting clays all benefit from stress relief, stabilization, and potentially carbide precipitation and martensitic phase transformation, depending upon the alloying elements present in the structure. Heat treatable tool steels like A2 and D2, S7 and M42 benefit, as well as 440C and Gray Iron. Wow, what a cool process!
Case carburized steel (En 353) when cryogenically treated showed tremendous improvement in wear resistance. This is due to the microstructural changes such as conversion of retained austenite to martensite and precipitation of fine alloying carbides.