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The effect of cryogenic treatment on the distribution of the residual stress in case carburized steel (En 353) was studied using X-Ray diffraction techniques.  X-Ray diffraction consistently shows a significant reduction in hoop tensile and compressive stresses as a result of deep cryogenic processing.  Two types of cryogenic treatment: shallow cryogenic treatment (193 K) and deep cryogenic treatment (77 K) were adopted as a supplement to conventional heat treatment in these studies.